|Duncan Forbes||General Sir John Cope|
|General George Wade||General Henry Hawley|
|The Duke of Cumberland||Clan Campbell|
Lord President of Scotland, Duncan Forbes and others
Duncan Forbes, Lord President of Scotland was the senior law officer of the Crown and acted under the instructions of the Secretary of State for Scotland, Lord Tweeddale. Forbes disliked Jacobitism but was a patriotic Scot and had made strenuous efforts to produce reform in the Highlands and bring some prosperity by the introduction of justice and industry. 'Honest, learned and kind, he was an excellent golfer, and the most hospitable of hosts.' He believed that Scotland’s future lay in the strengthening of the Union and traveled widely attempting to keep unsettled clans loyal to the government. In this he had considerable success.
Fraser of Lovat
Simon Fraser, Lord Lovat although constantly playing both sides against the middle in an attempt to come out on the winning side was undoubtedly influenced by Forbes and did not 'come out' for the Prince (although he encouraged his son to do so!)
|MacDonald of Sleat|
|MacLeod of MacLeod|
Norman MacLeod, the Skye clan chief was also influenced to stay at home and he in turn persuaded Sir Alexander MacDonald of Sleat to do the same.
General Sir John Cope
In 1745 General Sir John Cope was
Commander-in-Chief, Scotland. His headquarters were in Edinburgh and under his
command was a total of about 3,000 men. Few of them were mounted and almost all
were badly trained or recently recruited. Edinburgh Castle garrison was
commanded by the eighty-five year old General Joshua Guest. When news
arrived that the Young Pretender had possibly landed and some Highlanders were
about to rally to his Standard, Cope tried to warn the government and suggested
certain preventative measures. He was ignored until it became quite clear that a
rebellion was about to begin but at last was ordered to proceed towards Fort
Augustus in an attempt to squash any trouble before it began. However, when Cope heard reports of
Highlander strength, and that the Prince intended to attack as Hanoverian troops
crossed the Corrieyairack pass, he changed his plans and marched to Inverness.
General Cope was in command at the Battle of Prestonpans and the road down which he and his dragoons escaped is known to this day as ‘Johnnie Cope’s Road’.
Extract from "Walking with Charlie"
General George Wade was an Englishman who was assigned the task of improving road communications in the Highlands after the Jacobite rebellion of 1715 so that troops could be moved about quickly. Between 1725 and 1740 about 250 miles of new or greatly improved road were completed. Sixty miles were in the Great Glen linking Fort William with Inverness and a further two roads linked Inverness with Perth and Stirling. Yet another was built in 1731 and led from Fort Augustus to Dalwhinnie climbing to 2,500 ft over the Corrieyairack pass. Ironically the only time this road played a decisive role in a military campaign was to help Prince Charles’ army in its initial military success. The road provided work for more than 500
|Wade Bridge at Garvamore|
soldiers, cost £70 per mile to build and was originally fifteen feet wide. Modern road builders have often followed the line of Wade’s roads but the one from Fort Augustus to Laggan Bridge has not been further improved and is now a track sometimes no more than five feet wide. End
General Henry Hawley
General Wade was replaced by Lieutenant-General Henry Hawley who was rumoured to be the illegitimate son of George I and had a reputation for cruelty. Hawley was an arrogant man and had no great belief in the Jacobite army's ability to fight describing them in words he would soon regret, as 'arrant scum’ and 'the most despicable enemy that are.'
Hawley commanded the government
forces at Falkirk which ended in victory for the Prince, with fewer than fifty
of his men killed and several hundred of Hawley's soldiers killed or wounded.
The General was relieved of command and overall
control of Hanoverian forces fell to His Royal Highness, The Duke of Cumberland.
Hawley was not pleased at having his command taken from him and took his revenge
on the Highlanders in the aftermath of the Battle of Culloden later in the year.
It seems that the orders of General Hawley had a
large part to play in the atrocities committed both on the battlefield and for
months after Culloden. ‘Hangman’ Hawley, as he was
known, was of the opinion that if, 'the
parliament would give the men a guinea and a pair of shoes for every rebel’s
head they brought in I would still undertake to clear this country.' He also
bragged of seven thousand houses already burned and that there were still many
more to be destroyed.
The Duke of Cumberland
Extract from "Walking with Charlie"
William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland was born on 15 April 1721, the second son of the future King George II. He died at the age of 44, on 31 October 1765 and is buried in nave of The Lady Chapel in Westminster Abbey. He was a Major-General at the age of 21 and was wounded at Dettingen in 1743. The Duke went on to command the army in 1745 at Fontenoy where he was defeated by the French. Sustained musket and cannon fire tore into the ranks of his men, teaching Cumberland a tactical lesson he was to use with good effect at Culloden. The Duke’s life involved attempts to reform the army and he directed the course of the Seven Years War (1756-63). Many of the events of his life and his efforts in the realms of princely public service do not indicate that he was a barbaric or unusually cruel man. However, because of the murders, rapes, lootings and burnings visited upon the Highlanders in the aftermath of Culloden, he has been dubbed ‘Butcher Cumberland’ ever since.
The Duke died at the age of 44, on 31 October 1765. End
The Campbells were for the most part government supporters and fought against the Jacobites in all the battles of the '45. Chief of Clan Campbell was Archibald, 3rd Duke of Argyll. He was determined to do everything he could to put down the rebellion. Argyll offered the government all his considerable influence and all the man power he could raise and the Agyll Militia were active throughout the campaign.
Campbell of Argyll
Since 1730 Argyll and Duncan Forbes had been instrumental in the raising the Independent Companies known as The Black Watch.
When news arrived that Price Charles had landed great efforts were made by the Campbells and other supporters of the Hanoverians to raise as many men as possible. Something like twenty companies were formed and welded into the regiment bearing their commander's name, John Campbell 4th Earl of Louden. In achieving this he had the support of other Highlanders notably MacLeod of MacLeod and MacDonald of Sleat whose failure to support he Prince was a serious blow to Jacobite chances of success.
Extract from "Walking with Charlie"
Lord Loudon 1747
Louden, the Hanoverian holder of Inverness, was interested in the reward of £30,000
that was on the Pretender’s head and the kudos he would gain from his
incarceration and so resolved to capture Charles. Louden marched towards Moy
with 1500 men intending to take the Prince by surprise. However, his Lordship
had not reckoned on the response of Colonel Anne’s mother, Lady Mackintosh,
who lived in Inverness. According to James Gib, the Master of the Prince’s
Household, when Lady Mackintosh heard of Louden’s plan she dispatched a young
clansman, Lachlan Mackintosh, through the government cordon to her daughter’s
house to warn Charles. On hearing the news Colonel Anne sent five men, including
the Moy blacksmith, to keep a look out for the arrival of Louden’s men. When
they saw the advance guard approaching the men fired their weapons and filled
the air with war cries and chants. Believing that the whole Jacobite army was
about to descend on them the terrified attackers panicked and fled back to
Inverness in disorder. End
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