I thought this page could be used for bits and pieces. Odd things that you might want to share with others just for interest or for fun.
The Battle of the Boyne
Battle of Culloden by William Topaz McGonagall
Books for Sale
The Treasure of Loch Arkaig and the BBC
Lieutenant General Henry Hawley
Bonnie Prince Charlie-Nunnington Hall Yorkshire
Highland Photos of some of the places where the Prince was hiding and traveling
Donald Macleod "The Faithful Palinurus"
New Cairn on the Isle of Lewis
New novel by 1745 Association member Martin Kelvin "The Sobieski Ruby" available from Amazon Kindle
You can also find Steve Lord's "Walking with Charlie" on Amazon Kindle as well
The Battle of The Boyne
(The Battle of the Boyne raises sensitive feelings to this very day. The webmaster would like to make clear he holds no particular brief for the websites chosen as links in this short account of the battle. There are many internet pages that interested parties may access concerning the battle and its aftermath. The webmaster also makes clear that neither he nor the 1745 Association wish to use this website as a tool to represent any shade of modern political opinion.)
In an opportunistic response to the difficulties faced by James II (and VII) William of Orange landed at Torbay on November 5 1688 and advanced on London, James fled to France with his family. William was given temporary control of government, and in February 1689 he and his wife Mary became King and Queen
England and Wales pledged allegiance to William, but James retained support in parts of Scotland and in most of Ireland. In Ireland James Lord Deputy, The Earl of Tyrconnell raised an army to support James. On 12 March 1689 James landed in Ireland, intent on using it as a base to recover the throne of England.Although most of Ireland remained loyal to James the exception was Protestant Ulster and Sligo which had declared for William. The war began with the Jacobite forces trying to defeat Williamite forces in Ulster. In early March a Jacobite force under Hamilton marched north from Dublin to subdue Ulster. The first shots of the war were fired in Dromore, Co Down, where a small Williamite force was defeated. The Jacobite forces swept all before them up to the walls of Derry or Londonderry. So commenced the famous siege.
On May 1st Patrick Sarsfield took Sligo. He advanced to Ballyshannon but retreated without taking the town. In July Lord Mountcashel was defeated at Newtownbutler (Co Fermanagh) as he led a Jacobite force to attack Enniskillen. On August 4th the siege of Derry was lifted. Shortly after a large Williamite force under the command of the Duke of Schomberg landed in Ulster and attempted to take total control of Ulster. Near Dundalk the retreating Jacobites were reinforced with a new army assembled by Tyrconnell and they decided to stand ground. Suddenly the approaching Williamites got caught by a fever which killed approximately 2500 men. In the meantime the French brought reinforcements and supplies to Ireland. The Jacobites delaying tactics paid off.
After the mixed result of
Schomberg's Campaign King William III decided to come to Ireland himself to
chase away King James II and his Irish-French army.
To secure victory King William III had a virtual unlimited war chest at his disposal to pay and feed the thousand horses and 36,000 men. On 14 June 1690 the huge fleet of 300 ships dropped anchor in Belfast Lough, near the ships used by Schomberg.
Four days after disembarking the Williamites marched southwards to join with the remnants of Schomberg's army near Dundalk. The outnumbered Jacobites left their positions and retreat to the south bank of the River Boyne where they took up battle positions.
With barrage of the artillery, including the famous and feared heavy Dutch cannons that until this day can be found all over Ireland near castles and forts, King William III started the Battle of the Boyne on 1 July 1690.
Despite the river, which acted as natural barrier, King William III ordered a frontal main attack, while his cavalry lured a substantial part of the Irish-French army away from the actual battlefield. As inhumane as it may be King William III could afford a straightforward approach without cunning manoeuvres because of the numerical superiority of his army.The 36,000 Williamite forces at the Boyne outnumbered the 25,000 Jacobites and this numerical advantage was compounded by superior equipment. Both armies favoured red coats which lead to a lot confusion in the battle.
The standard infantry weapon in the Jacobite army was the matchlock musket, a more primitive weapon than the flintlock which was replacing it. Most of William's infantry were equipped with flintlocks. The Jacobites had some flintlocks.
The pike was still used in the battle but was at the end of its day. Well equipped units would have one pike to every six muskets. Some Williamite units had no pikes. The weapon that replaced the pike was the bayonet and many Williamite units were equipped with them.
William's camp was on the north side of the river. James's was on the south side with the two armies facing each other. William's battle plan was to trap the Jacobite army in a pincer movement. He sent 10,000 men towards Slane which drew the bulk of the Jacobites upstream in response. With 1,300 Jacobites posted in Drogheda, only 6,000 were left at Oldbridge to confront 26,000 Williamites. All the fighting took place on the south side of the river as the vastly outnumbered Jacobite forces defended their position against the advancing Williamites. William himself crossed at Drybridge with 3,500 mounted troops.
The pincer movement failed. King James's army retreated across the river Nanny at Duleek and regrouped west of the Shannon to carry on the war.
Approximately 1,500 soldiers were killed at the Boyne
The Battle of the Boyne was fought on July 1st 1690 (its modern day celebration on the 12th is due to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in 1753) and saw the defeat of the Jacobites, who demoralised, retreated to Limerick, where they fought on until the Treaty of Limerick was signed a year later.
The battle marked the beginning of the end for the Jacobite cause in Ireland as well as the old native Irish aristocracies and established the future British dominance of Ireland. For this reason and as a celebration of their own cultural identity, Unionists and the Protestant Orange Order in Northern Ireland remember the Twelfth of July.
|Battle site||Four wheeled Jacobite Cannon||Plug Bayonet in Flintlock Musket|
|River Boyne||Loading the Two Wheeled Williamite Cannon||Mortar|
William Topaz McGonagall, poet and tragedian of Dundee, has been widely hailed as the writer of the worst poetry in the English language.
A self-educated hand loom weaver from Dundee, he discovered his discordant muse in 1877 and embarked upon a 25 year career as a working poet, delighting and appalling audiences across Scotland and beyond.
The historical details are not far from the truth.
If you want to read McGonagall's poem then click the link above. You will also be able to find other offering from this poet on the same site
Lieutenant-General Henry Hawley
I am sure there is no need to introduce most visitors to this site to "Hangman Hawley". However there is a brief article below that you may find of interest. I pinched it from Wikipedia but am sure they won't mind. There are lots of links in the article that will take you to other sites that may also be of interest. (Don't forget to come back here though!)
Henry Hawley (c. 1679 - 1759), British lieutenant-general, entered the army, it is said, in 1694.
He saw service in the War of Spanish Succession as a captain of Erie's (the 19th) Foot. After Almanza he returned to England, and a few years later had become lieutenant-colonel of the 19th. With this regiment he served at Sheriffmuir in 1715, where he was wounded.
After this he served for some years in the United Kingdom, obtaining promotion in the usual course, and in 1739 he arrived at the grade of major general. Four years later he accompanied George II and Stair to Germany, and, as a general officer of cavalry under Sir John Cope, was present at Dettingen.
Becoming lieutenant-general somewhat later, he was second-in-command of the cavalry at Fontenoy, and on 20th December 1745 became commander-in-chief in Scotland. Less than a month later Hawley suffered a severe defeat at Falkirk at the hands of the Jacobite insurgents. This, however, did not cost him his command, for the Duke of Cumberland, who was soon afterwards sent north, was captain-general. Under Cumberland's orders Hawley led the cavalry in the campaign of Culloden, and at that battle his dragoons became infamous for their ruthless butchery of the fugitive rebels, while he gained the nickname of Hangman Hawley.
After the end of the "Forty-Five" he accompanied Cumberland to the Low Countries and led the allied cavalry at Lauffeld (Val). He ended his career as governor of Portsmouth and died at that place in 1759. He was buried in the parish church of St Mary in Hartley Wintney in Hampshire, near his family home, West Green House.
James Wolfe, his brigade-major, wrote of General Hawley in no flattering terms. "The troops dread his severity, hate the man and hold his military knowledge in contempt," he wrote. But, whether it be true or false that he was the natural son of George II, Hawley was always treated with the greatest favour by that king and by his son the Duke of Cumberland.
I went down to Hawley's family home at West Green House in June 2007. The property is owned by the National Trust but is tenanted and thus effectively a private house. The gardens are open to the public and very pretty they are too. I am told that there are no artifacts, furniture, etc in the house that were owned by General Hawley. The only piece of Hawley's life that I could find was a tombstone to his dog "Monkey". The stone is in the floor of what is now a sort of summer house. Is it in its original situation with the body of the dog beneath? I do not know!
Oh Poor Monkey
Come all yee shooters, come my loss to bewaile.
The best black spaniell that ere wagd a taile.
Of questing kind and Royal breed she came.
Great was her service and as great her fame.
Fifteen hard winters she did hunt and last.
This stone's in memory of service past.
Anno - 34
I say no more
Hawley had the house built and at his death bequeathed it to his housekeeper's second son, William Toovey Hawley. The brochure from West Green House writes "Hawley left his estate to his housekeeper's second son William Toovey Hawley whose descendants lived at West Green until 1898."
As far as I can see Hawley is buried in St Mary's Church, Hartley Wintney in Hampshire. The present building dates back to at least 1243 but is is believed that a church stood on the site for many years before. The church is closed now except for occasional special services. It is in the hands of The Churches' Conservation Trust and opens its doors from time to time for visitors to see its box pews, plaques and monuments.
There a number of artefacts in the church of interest to Jacobites. Firstly there is the Hawley vault. Situated in the nave just in front of the altar the vault is marked by a simple stone inscribed "Entrance to the Vault of H. W. Toovey Hawley Esquire." There is no date.
As you can see from the lineage below Hawley married "Anne d. of Toovey". They had a child, William Henry Toovey Hawley. Is this fact I wonder? The Hampshire magazine of October 1987 quotes Hawley's will in an article about the man, "He adopts as his heir the younger son (probably his own) of Mrs Elizabeth Toovey 'who has been for many years my friend and companion and often my careful nurse and in my absence a careful steward.'"
Now if I am looking at the correct part of the Hawley lineage table you will see that it has Hawley marrying "Anne d. of Toovey." (Lots of Annes are also called Elizabeth or so I am led to believe)
In any event William Henry is born and follows in his father's footsteps by becoming a Lt General. William Henry married Jane d. of Baker and complicates matters by producing a son confusingly called Henry William who rises to the rank of Lt Colonel. This gentleman marries Catharine d. of George Jepson. This marriage is mentioned in the guide to St Mary's church although Henry William is credited as being the son of "Hangman" (as indeed he is in the official guide to West Green House) whereas I feel he was probably Hawley's grandson. According to the church official guidebook the marriage took place in 1794. Considering the lineage below and the fact that "Hangman" died in 1759 at the age of approximately eighty it seems likely that Henry William is Hawley's grandson.
It is probable that the stone at the entrance to the vault is dedicated to this man.
I reproduce a section of the Hawley Lineage below (significant Hawleys in green) and you can see it all by clicking on the link.
|Family Group 1aa|
|Robert Hawley, Esq.||1659 ish|
|m.||Susan Lady Erle d. of William Fienes 3rd Viscount Saye & Sele|
|children||Col. Francis 1st son||1660 ish|
|Col. Henry||1660 ish|
|Col. Francis Hawley|
|children||Lt. Gen. Henry, Esq||1695 ish|
|Edward d. unmarried||1695 ish|
|Charles d. unmarried||1695 ish|
|Lt. Gen. Henry Hawley, Esq|
|m.||Anne d. of Toovey|
William Henry Toovey-Hawley, Esq
|Lt. Col. William Henry Toovey-Hawley, Esq.|
|m.||Jane d. of Baker|
|children||Lt. Col. Henry William, Esq||1765 ish|
|Lt. Col. Henry William Toovey-Hawley, Esq.|
|m.||Catharine, d. of George Jepson, Esq||co. Lincoln|
|children||William Henry, Esq||12/4/1793||West Greenhouse nr Hartford Bridge co. Hants|
|Capt. Robert m. Louisa, only d. of John Hanbury Beaufoy, Esq. Of Upton Gray, co. Hants||1800 ish|
|John, Rector of Eversley, Hants. unmarried 1832||1800 ish|
|Catharine m. John Simonds Breedon, Esq. Of De la Bere, co. Berks.||1800 ish|
|Jane unmarried 1832||1800 ish|
|William Henry Toovey-Hawley, Esq||4/12/1821|
|m.||Elizabeth-Mary, 1st d. of Admiral John Broughton, Esq||Black-water-house, Hants|
Hawley's will goes on to leave £100.00 to Elizabeth Burkett, "she having a useful agreeable handmaid to me, but on this condition, that she is not fool enough to marry Lt Colonel John Toovey." Is this the (first) husband of his mistress/wife?
The will of Henry Hawley also states:
"As I began this world with nothing and as all I have left is my own acquiring, I can dispose of it as I please. But first I direct and order (that as there is now peace and I may die in a common way) my carcase (sic) may be put anywhere, 'tis equal to me, but I will have no more expense or ridiculous show than if a poor soldier (who is as good a man) was to be buried from the hospital. The priest I will conclude will have his fee, let the puppy have it. Pay the carpenter for his carcase box. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and soul having writ it with my hand and signed it: and this I did because I hate all priests of all professions and have the worst opinion of all members of the law".
St Mary's also has a plaque on the wall commemorating the life of "Annie the beloved wife of Lt Colonel Robert Beaufoy Hawley, 60th rifles. 12 June 1861."
I hope the pictures are self explanatory but if you hover over each one there is a title.
The church contains a Queen Anne Royal Coat of Arms dated 1705. According to the guide book such coats of arms "were placed in all churches when the Royal family were anxious to establish the Protestant right of succession."
You may be further interested to know that Field Marshall Alan Francis Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke, of WWII fame is also buried under a simple gravestone in the churchyard of St Mary's church.
Anyone who has more information about Hawley is most welcome to email Lewie and contribute to (or correct) this article. I will be very pleased to hear more of his marriage if such an event ever took place.
We are indebted to Ms Linda Booth for information regarding Henry Hawley's will. The will can also be found on the National Archives website http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documentsonline/ Also see Letters Page
Members and others may like to know that after last year's fears that the Drambuie Collection might be sold, I am pleased to inform you that the Collection is now on long-term loan to the Scottish National Portrait Gallery. Next May additional items will be displayed at the new Culloden Battlefield Visitor Centre. When the Portrait Gallery has been fully refurbished, even more items will be displayed.
to Heritage North Website, launched 12th December, 2006. Drambiue Coillection
Marriage of 1745 Association member's Godmother
On Wednesday 5th October the Godmother of Ludovic Robertson Mackay, Cayetana FitzJames-Stuart, Duchess of Berwick and Alba got married in Sevilla, for the third time, to Don Alfonso Diaz , 60 yrs old. The most extravagant, wealthy and titled Cougar, is 85. May I remind you that her ancestor is James FitzJames-Stuart, 1st Duke of Berwick, son of King James VII of Scotland and II of England with his royal mistress, Arabella Churchill, sister of the 1st Duke of Marlborough
Books for Sale
Jacobite Estates of the Forty-Five
by Annette Smith
Published by John Donald 1982
This is a first edition hardback book in excellent condition. It has an unmarked and unchipped dust jacket that has not been price clipped.
There are no library marks nor is there an Ex Libris sticker. In fact there are no marks, underlinings, folded down corners etc etc. It really is as good as can be found.
the inside cover
The defeat of the Jacobites in 1746 enabled government statesmen and administrators, north and south of the Border, to begin a policy of punishment and reform in Scotland generally but particularly in the Highlands, which had provided the greater part of the Charles Edward army. The forfeiture of the estates of attained rebels was initially part of the punishment. Later, the rents and profits of thirteen of these estates, turned un effect into what was Crown land by ‘unalienable’ annexation, were applied to a far-reaching programme of social and economic change in the Highlands. A board of honorary commissioners was appointed to manage the annexed estates, with instructions from the government to modernise agriculture, introduce and develop industry and fisheries, improve communications and eradicate Roman Catholicism and sedition. Though not wholly ineffective, the Commissioners cannot be credited with having achieved overwhelming success and in 1784, twelve of the estates were returned to the forfeiting families; Fraser and Lovat had been similarly rewarded for services rendered ten years earlier. The owners had to repay the government for settling their ancestors’ debts during the annexation and the large capital sums obtained were devoted to assisting a variety of Scottish projects, including the Forth-Clyde canal, a lunatic asylum in Edinburgh and the construction of harbours and piers. This book is a detailed study of the estates before, during and after the annexations and it provides much material on the social and economic effects of the governments’ actions during this period.
Price £20.00 post free in UK (overseas buyer--please email for cost. Cost will be exactly what the post office charges)
or pay by Paypal to firstname.lastname@example.org
Sir John Cope and the Rebellion of 1745
General Sir Robert Cadell
This book will need no introduction to students of Jacobite history. It was first published in 1898, and that edition is now fairly expensive and difficult to find. The recently formed Battle of Prestonpans 1745 Heritage Trust has made successful efforts to rectify this situation by having the book reprinted, and it is available now. The new book is produced in a softback version by a photographic printing method that retains the original typefaces and pagination.
The Heritage Trust has reawakened interest in the Battle of Prestonpans where a stunning victory fanned the flames of hope and ambition for the 25-year-old Prince Charles Edward Stuart. The Trust has also brought to light conflicting perceptions held of the roles that General Sir John Cope and Colonel Gardiner played on September 20th and 21st 1745.
In The Pans and probably widely across Scotland, Colonel Gardiner is often seen as a heroic figure and General Sir John Cope as an incompetent. The song "Johnnie Cope" is less than flattering but the obelisk to Colonel Gardiner is very grand. Gardiner was a local landowner and his home at Bankton House has been carefully restored. Cadell's book goes a long way to redress the balance and readers will note "that the sympathy of the author is with Sir John Cope, to whom previous writers---- have in his view done injustice." The Contents page for Chapter One begins "Object of this work to clear reputation of Sir John Cope".
Robert Cadell was brought up in Cockenzie House where Cope had kept his money and baggage, which the Prince was subsequently to capture. He made good in the artillery as General Sir Robert Cadell and served in the Crimea and India. Cadell died in June 1897 before his book was published. His brother Thomas, who incidentally had won the VC, saw the work to its conclusion.
|The 1898 First Edition||The 2008 Reprint||General Sir Robert Cadell K.C.B. R.A.|
However, members of the 1745 Association who live in UK can order the book for £15.95 including P&P. I think all will agree that this is a generous discount.
For members living overseas the price will be £22.95 inc. airmail P&P. (Surface mail £18.95)
Members should confirm membership when ordering
For UK based non-members the price be £22.70 inc P&P
For overseas non-members the price is £28.95 inc. airmail P&P (£24.95 surface mail--can take up to eight weeks!)
Please send a cheque for the appropriate amount payable to "Battle Trust" to:
Those overseas who have no access to a UK bank account may pay through this website if they wish, using Paypal. Please add £1.00 in order to cover Paypal charges to email@example.com
Volume III of The Lyon in Mourning has recently been republished. It is available from several sources but Amazon is one of them.
Perhaps this could be a feature of the website. Anyone else got any Jacobite items they would like to sell? Email me details and pictures and I'll try for you.
Bonnie Prince Charlie at Nunnington Hall Yorkshire
The Treasure of Loch Arkaig and the BBC (Scotsman Article)
"The legend of Bonnie Prince Charlie's gold - a shipment of coins worth £5m at today's prices and landed on the Scottish coast by his French allies to support the Jacobite rebellion in 1745 - has intrigued historians for centuries"
Highland Photos of some of the places where the Prince was hiding and traveling
The photographs (© Allan Plant) here were taken by Mr Allan Plant of Grangemouth . Allan has been in telephone conversation with the webmaster of the Association and was kind enough to send me these pictures (and many others)
Corradale on South Uist. This proved to be an excellent refuge, as the glen is isolated and difficult to reach by land. Charles and his companions spent three happy weeks in reasonable comfort here, hunting game, resting and being visited by supporters.
|The 'cave' at the top of Ruebhal, Benbecula where Prince Charles hid prior to leaving for Skye from Rosinis||The Cave at Borradale where Prince Charles hid after returning from Skye and finding no help from Old Clanranald in Knoydart|
|A possible hideout at Cia-aig near Achnacarry||
Meall an Tagraidh near Achnacarry where Hanoverian troops had burned Lochiel's house to the ground. Charles fled here for a couple of days prior to travel to Ben Alder
|Coire Odhar Mor. Here Prince Charles met Cameron of Glenpean|
Loch Morar from Top of Sgurr nan Coireachan
‘We passed so near that little camp as to see the soldiers passing betwixt us and the fires, and to hear the sound of their talk.’ In spite of the huge danger, the night of 20 July ended with the Prince almost triumphantly slipping through the redcoat cordon.
Top of Sgurr nan Coireachan
A rendezvous between the Prince's party and Glenaladale was arranged at ‘about ten o’clock at night on the top of a hill, above Locharkaig in Lochiel’s country, called Scoorwick Corrichan’ (O.S. Sgurr nan Coireachan).
Click the Highlander for "Ye Jacobites by Name" by Schiltrum
Details and more about Schiltrum and their music here.
Donald Macleod "The Faithful Palinurus"
Your webmaster recently had a letter from Noni Brown of Queensland, Australia. Noni is a descendant of Donald Macleod who ferried Prince Charles Edward Stuart from Loch nan Uamh to Benbecula after the Battle of Culloden. The event and the man are remembered in the book “Prince Charlie’s Pilot”by Evan Macleod Barron. Noni's enquiry centred around the fact that although Macleod's descendants are well documented his ancestors seem to be unknown.
An opal pin given to Donald, for his assistance to Bonnie Prince Charlie, is current held by an Australian member of the family, who is a descendent of Donald McLeod of Kilmuir who emigrated to Australia in 1837 on the Midlothian. As the pin is held by the family, the supposition is that the Donald McLeod of Kilmuir was related to Donald of Galtrigill
I had a look at the 1745 Association web site… it is interesting and a lot of books to read on line. I just finished reading “Prince Charlie’s Pilot”.. it was very interesting and enjoyable and makes me quite proud to have an ancestor renown for his honesty, loyalty and devotion and he sounds like he was very down to earth and sensible at the same time. In 1746 he was around 68 yrs of age and his son Murdoch was only 15 yrs of age… It must have been very fit and healthy to survive what he did.
I haven’t put in the more recent generations at this time, but do not mind sharing with individuals who may have some relationship with “our Macleods” and descendents.
In the meantime, it seems odd that with everything written about this Donald MacLeod and the fact he married a notable woman well connected etc – that no one seems to know who his parents were nor other ancestors? Or was it kept secret for some reason. Perhaps he was a “natural child” of an important person. No doubt it will come to light sooner or later.
Bye for now… Noni
You will find Noni's attchment here
Should anyone have any information regarding the ancestry of Donald Macleod please contact Noni on firstname.lastname@example.org
New Cairn on the Isle of Lewis
Dear Lewie, Thought you may
like to see these images of the Memorial Cairn designed and built by me this
summer in Lewis. It represent the landing of C,E.S. in Lewis in May 1746.
I had a 5 x greatgrandfather, a John Robertson of Bhohispic, Loch Rannochof the Atholl Brigade who died at Culloden.
Regards James Crawford
I was approached some time ago to design and
build a cairn for the first Seaforth Castle by an Iain Mitchell of Stornoway. He
then asked if I could do one for the event of May 1746 at Aridhebruchai on Loch
Seaforth, Isle of Lewis. It was here that C.E.S. was dropped off by Campbell of
Scalpay and travelled on foot to Arnish, to see Lady Kildun. I was aware of my
ancestors part in the rising of 45 and was pretty keen to design something
The idea of a tear drop to represent the literal tears of the people, and their brutal suppression, and also tears of frustration on behalf of the participants on what was a very near run campaign, appealed to me.
I have a background in the Ethnological and Archaeological field, but served my apprenticeship in my fathers business as a stone mason, before training in surveying, and technical drawing,
I have participated with Artist Will MacLean in producing three Crofter Land raiders monuments which succeeded in winning the top environmental Awards in 1997, and also restored Black houses and Horizontal Mills and Kiln in Lewis, together with a experimental 4th C Figure of Eight House at Bosta Great Bernera.
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