Category Archives: Research

The Prisoners of the ’45 Volumes 1, 2, and 3

The Prisoners of the ’45 Volumes 1, 2, and 3. (1928)

Sir Bruce Gordon Seton and Jean Gordon Arnot

These have been transcribed (in Microsoft Word 2010 and zipped into one file) but not edited. Ready for digitising and adding to the database.

The Prisoners of the ’45 Volume 1,2,3

Transcribed from the Scottish History Society post (using ABBYY FineReader 11 ):

Digitised Volumes « Scottish History Society

A Jacobite curiosity in Pisa

My dear fellows,

IMG_20150922_162528I’ve just spent a couple of days in Pisa for work and even if sadly I had no time to look around for Jacobite related places (the surroundings of the town should be quite full of them since Pisa was one of the favorite holiday destinations of the Stuart brothers in the Sixties and Seventies) I passed in front of an old building with a slab that caught my attention. I have attached some photos of it since I think it could be considered a sort of Jacobite curiosity. The slab says that Count Vittorio Alfieri, the famous Italian dramatist and infamous lover of Queen Louise, was a guest in the house -which is named Palazzo Venera- from november 1784 to july 1785. The fact has awakened memories of mine since there are many letters written by the Duchess of Albany to her uncle telling that exactly during that period Charles was taking the waters in Bagni di Pisa (“bath of Pisa”, a village now called San Giuliano) and during his daily walks in Pisa he very often met the hated Alfieri and each time Charles was terribly annoyed by these encounters… It’s quite sad that there’s a marble slab to remember the few months of Alfieri in Pisa and nothing to remember the many visits the Stuarts paid to the town.

Just to have an idea of what the Stuart holidays in Bagni di Pisa were like, I suggest to give a look to the website of Villa Corliano, one of the residences used by the Stuarts (now it’s a luxury hotel), of which I also attach some photos retrieved on the net, hoping sooner or later to have the occasion to take some pictures myself.

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Above “Palazzo Venera” in via Santa Maria n. 36, Pisa

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Here the slab in memory of Alfieri

Below photos of Villa Corliano, one of the residences of the Stuarts in Pisa

index_02 image 28488_pisa_villa_corliano_pisa

Stuart Papers at Chiddingstone Castle

I received three reels of microfilm containing letters (many signed) and documents pertaining to the Stuart Papers collected by Denys Eyre Bower. In time, I will scan these to PDF and, given permission, publish some of the more interesting ones. Following, is a list of what is on the reels:

Contents – Reel 1

  1. Correspondence signed by members of the House of Stuart – letters Microfilmed in chronological sequence.

(Approximate number of letters)

Mary, Queen of Scots                                 1

James I                                                            8

Charles I                                                        20

Charles II                                                      26

James II                                                         15

William III                                                       8

James III                                                         8

Charles III                                                     11

Victor I          (Including Newspaper cuttings,
twentieth century telegrams, etc.)

  1. Privy Council Documents.

Charles II                                                      18

Anne                                                                2

James II                                                           3

William & Mary                                             2

William III                                                       5

  1. Documents and letters signed by and dealing with the adherents of the Royal House of Stuart.
  2. Papers relating to James III
    Charles II (as Prince of Wales)
    Henry IX (Cardinal York)
    Together with accounts and lists of jewels and banking accounts
  3. Catalogue of Bagot Civil War Documents, items 1 to 89.

Contents – Reel 2

  1. Continuation of the catalogue of Bagot Civil War Documents, items No. 90 to 123.
  2. State Papers:

James I                                                           2

Charles I                                                        6

Charles II                                                     80

James II                                                         7

William III                                                    21

Anne                                                               1

James III                                                      13

Contents – Reel 3

Continuation of State Papers from Reel 2.

Henry, Cardinal of York                        30

Victor                                                            1

(Supplementary to the above

Charles I                                                      3

Charles II                                                     7

4 and 5

Letters of the Sobieski Stuarts, together with bound manuscripts in the sequence in which they appear on the film.

  1. Bound volume containing original autograph letters of the Duke of Monmouth, including drawings and cuttings from the London Gazette.
  2. Bound volume containing copy of the Levant Company Charter confirmed by Charles II.
  3. Bound volume containing the Earl of Halifax’s character of Charles II.
  4. Bound volume containing notes on Clarendon’s History of the Rebellion.
  5. Bound volume containing the account of the Battle of Cape Le Hague by Tobias Smollett.
  6. Bound volume containing autographs connected with the rising in Scotland (1745).
  7. Bound volume containing autographs following the 1745
  8. Bound volume containing the decrees and judgement in favour of Patrick Grant.
  9. Accounts and Reports, etc.
  10. Bound volume containing letters and cuttings relative to Crown Prince Rupert of Bavaria, and the Sobieski Stuarts.
  11. Copies of the Whitehall Review.
  12. General Forster’s farewell.
  13. Various letters, including letters to Edward Walford and letters of Georgina Stuart d’Albany.
  14. Eight letters and documents in the period of Charles II including letters signed by the Earl of Danby.
  15. Various letters, including letters to Sir John Coxe Hippisley. C.1800.

(Hippisley was responsible for initiating the negotiations with the Duchess of Albany’s Executors in Rome for the purchase of the Main Collection of Stuart Papers, on behalf of the Prince of Wales.

These papers are now in the Royal Archives at Windsor Castle, and are available complete on Microfilm, from Micro Methods Ltd.)

These papers have been microfilmed by courtesy of Mr. Denys Eyre Bower, from his private collection at Chiddingstone Castle, Kent, written authority must be obtained from Mr. Bower to quote from, reproduce, or publish any material on the film.

Mr. Denys Eyre Bower started the collection in the 1920’s. It is now the largest collection of its kind in private hands and forms a valuable supplement, though strictly modest compared with that fantastic collection, to the Windsor Stuart Papers. Indeed many documents in Mr. Bower’s collection originally formed part of the Windsor Stuart archives which were separated from the main collection by various circumstances. The letters of the Chevalier Watson in the early 19th century describe in some detail the purchase of the Windsor papers for the de facto occupant of the Crown. The collection consists of many hundreds of documents and letters signed by the Stuart Kings and Queens from Mary Queen of Scots to the later exiled monarchy and their hereditary heirs to modern times, together with their adherents and a few of their opponents where history demands.

An interesting section includes the spurious Sobieski Stuarts of the 19th century whose claims were accepted by many people of note in Scotland and elsewhere.

A. Green

Sheffield University
1969 – 70

Thesis from Stefano Baccolo and thanks to the 1745 Association

Stefano Baccolo, in his university thesis “Carlo Stuart in Italia 1766-1788—La Corte di un principe in esilio”, thanks the members of the 1745 Association.

RINGRAZIAMENTI

Al di fuori dell’ambiente universitario desidero ringraziare l’amico Dave
Waddell per il supporto che diede alla mia ricerca del testamento di Carlo
Stuart, che fu poi lo spunto per questo lavoro. Con lui ringrazio per
l’interesse e la simpateticità con cui seguirono la stessa ricerca anche Mag-
gie Craig, Stephen Lord c tutto il resto della 1745 Association, di cui sono
fiero d’essere membro.

In English:

THANKS

Outside of the university, I would like to thank my friend Dave Waddell for the support he gave to my research of the Will of Charles Stuart, which later became the inspiration for this work. I thank him for the interest and understanding which followed the same research also Maggie Craig, Stephen Lord and the rest of the 1745 Association, of which I am proud to be a member.

The poems of Alexander Macdonald (Mac Mhaighstir Alasdair)

Modern poetry in Scottish Gaelic begins with the brilliant, controversial figure of Alexander MacDonald, better known as Alasdair Mac Mhaighstir Alasdair, who was active during the eighteenth century. His only collection, Aiseirigh na Seann Chànain Albannaich (1751), was the first printed book to be published in any Celtic language. His patriotic poems mocked those who had failed to support the Jacobite cause (such as the Campbells), and in “A Chanibal Dhuidsich” George II is mocked as a German cannibal. Not surprisingly, the book was considered treasonable, and burned by the hangman in Edinburgh.

Here, in Gaelic, French, and English is one of his best known poems:

Oran a rinneadh ‘sa bhliadhna 1746 A Song Composed in the Year 1746

From the same site (with translations from John Lorne Campbell‘s 1932 book) are many others:

Oran Nuadh A New Song
O Thearlaich Mhic Sheumais! O Charles Son of James
Clo Mhic Ille Mhicheil (?) The Cloth of McGhille Micheil
Oran Mhorair Mhic Shiomoin An Elegy on Lord Lovat
Oran nam Fineachan Gaidhealach The Song of the Clans
Oran Do’n Phrionnsa A Song to the Prince
Oran Eile Do’n Phrionnsa Another Song to the Prince
Mile marbhphaisg air ant-saoghal On This Age a Thousand Curses
Mhorag Chiatach Achuil Dualaich Graceful Morag of the Ringlets
A channibal Dhuidsich O German Cannibal
Fuigheall A Fragment
Gairm do Phrionnsa Teàrlach A Call to Prince Charles
O togamaid oirnn thar uisge O Let us Go over the Sea
Fuigheall eile Another Fragment
Brosnachadh eile do na Gàidheil Another incitement for the Gaels

Various downloadable Jacobite books of verse

Jacobite songs and ballads by Macquoid, Gilbert Samuel

Jacobite Lyrics (Volume 29) – Snyder, Franklyn Bliss

Stuart and Jacobite Lyrics (Volume 13) – Snyder, Franklyn Bliss

Jacobite minstrelsy; with notesJacobite minstrelsy

Reliques of Irish Jacobite poetry; – John O’Daly

Jacobite Songs And Ballads Of Scotland – Charles Mackay

Songs of the cavaliers and roundheads, Jacobite ballads, &c. &c. – Thornbury, Walter, 1828-1876

English Jacobite ballads, songs & satires, etc. From the mss. at Towneley hall, Lancashire – Grosart, Alexander Balloch, 1827-1899

The Jacobite Relics of Scotland: Being the Songs, Airs, and Legends, of the Adherents to the … – James Hogg

An t-Aosdàna; or a selection of the most popular Gaelic Jacobite songs, [etc.], [etc.] – Mackenzie, John, 1806-1848

The poetical works of Alexander Macdonald, the celebrated Jacobite poet : now first collected, with a short account of the author – MacDonald, Alexander, ca. 1695-ca. 1770

Jacobite melodies : a collection of the most popular legends, ballads and songs of the adherents to the house of Stuart ; with historical and explanatory notes

Innes’s edition of the songs of Scotland : selected from the works of her eminent poets ; including the celebrated Jacobite songs of the rebellion of 1745, and other favorites, introduced in the Lectures on Scottish minstrelsy by Mr. Wilson ; to whom this collection is respectfully dedicated

Remains of Nithsdale and Galloway song: with historical and traditional notices relative to the manners and customs of the peasantry – Cromek, R. H. (Robert Hartley), 1770-1812

Poets and dreamers : studies & translations from the Irish – Gregory, Lady, 1852-1932

New Collected Rhymes – Lang, Andrew, 1844-1912

Bonnie Prince Charlie Letter – Lyon & Turnbull Auction Edinburgh May 7 2014

The letter written by Bonnie Prince Charlie to King Louis XV of France on November 5 1746, giving the Prince’s detailed account of the events of the ’45 in his own hand and appealing for the King’s support to return to Scotland to complete the campaign, is being sold at the Lyon & Turnbull books and manuscripts auction in Edinburgh on May 7th 2014.

Details are given on Lyon & Turnbull’s website,

http://www.lyonandturnbull.com/

The catalogue entry is below.

Lot 98: Stuart, Charles Edward, “Bonnie Prince Charlie”, or “The Young Pretender”, 1720-88

Estimated Price: £8,000 – £12,000

Description: Stuart, Charles Edward, “Bonnie Prince Charlie”, or “The Young Pretender”, 1720-88

Autograph letter signed to Louis XV, the King of France, “Monsieur Mon Frere et Cousin. J’ai eu l’honneur d’ecrire a Votre Majesté”, stating that he has written a Memorandum of his affairs [“un petit memoire des mes affaires”], that he strongly hopes to put into the hands of the King himself, and that he waits with impatience the King’s orders as to the day and way he may do so, and offering to come incognito to a secret rendezvous to be recommended by the king, signed “Monsieur Mon Frere et Cousin de Votre Majesté, le bon Frere et Cousin, Charles P., Clichy, le 5 Novembre, 1746”, 1 page, with Stuart, Charles Edward Autograph covering letter, stating that he is enclosing a letter for His Majesty, that without exception no one knows that he has written it nor the method of its delivery, stating that the carrier, Monsieur Kelly, is a citizen esteemed by him but that nevertheless he knows nothing of the contents [“il ne scait rien pourtant du contenu”], and that he is completely convinced of His Majesty’s friendship for him and he can be same of his, 1 leaf, integral blank, Clichy, 5 November, 1746; Stuart, Charles Edward. Autograph memoir, headed “Memoire”, describing the political situation [“ce Roiaume est a la veille de se voir aneantir”], stating that English government oppression is fostering ever more support for his cause [“j’y trouverais aujourdhui trois partisans pour un que j’y ay trouvé en debarquant”], explains his lack of success at taking the English throne, noting that he has never lacked for Scottish subjects ready to fight, but lacked money, equipment and a regular army “J’ay manqué tout a la fois, d’argent, de vivres et d’une poigneé de troupes regulieres” . If he had had just one of these he states, he would by now have been King of Scotland “et vraisembalement de toute l’Angleterre”, 2 pp., integral blank leaf, all 31 x 20cm., all with small stamp “Bu. Poitiers, Archives d’Argenson”

Notes: Provenance: The letter was passed by King Louis to the Marquis d’Argenson, his Minister of War and it remained in the d”Argenson family archives for nearly 250 years until it was loaned to the University of Poitiers for safekeeping. In 2002 the d’Argenson family sold this and other documents. Note: Prince Charlie wrote to King Louis XV of France on November 5th 1746, six weeks after his escape to France from Arisaig on the west coast of Scotland, and three weeks after his arrival at Roscoff on 11 October, setting out his account of the Rising and appealing for the King’s help to mobilise another campaign to win back his kingdom.

The document comprises three sections: [1] a covering letter to the Marquis d’Argenson, King Louis’ Minister of War, requesting that he present his letter and Memorandum to King Louis; [2] a covering letter to the King; and [3] the Memorandum itself, setting out the Prince’s account of the campaign and appealing for the King’s support.

The letters and Memorandum comprise a unique historical account, in the Prince’s own hand, setting out his version of the events of the 1745 Rising. The content of the letter shows that he had clearly not given up hope of a successful return and states bluntly that the 1745 Campaign would surely have succeeded with modest help from France at critical points during the campaign. The Memorandum confirms that the Prince’s decision to advise supporters to disperse after Culloden was not a betrayal, but rather a fully rational decision to minimise loss of life pending his efforts to mobilise further support. It reveals that the Prince was still very optimistic about the prospects for eventual success, hoping to repeat the experience of his great-uncle King Charles II, who returned to become King after the Stuart monarchy’s defeat in battle and exile abroad. Had King Louis responded positively to the Prince’s request for support to launch a new campaign, it could have altered the course of British history. However, by that time, the French had defeated British forces in Flanders, greatly assisted by the withdrawal of key British regiments from the continent to counteract the threat posed by the Rising. So, looked at from the viewpoint of King Louis and his ministers, the Prince had served his purpose and no further support was given. The Prince’s worst fears were realised when France signed the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in October 1748, recognising the Hanoverian succession and repudiating the claim of the Stuarts. With all hope of an imminent invasion abandoned, Charles was forcibly escorted from Paris and began 40 years of exile. In the light of the Prince’s subsequent decline, reading the Memorandum today is rather poignant, for we know how the story turned out, as he could not when he sat down to write to King Louis XV on November 5th 1746.

Ode to a Wounded Foot and Lament of Donald MacDonald

These translations by David Wishart are of two Latin odes written by Donald Roy MacDonald who was at Culloden and fighting alongside Keppoch and saw him fall. There are many references to Donald Roy in Volume II of the Lyon in Mourning and he was clearly one of Robert Forbes “favourites”. The translation came about by the tireless efforts of Noni Brown and I have included David’s letter to her below:

Noni,

Glad you liked the translations, although I wouldn’t, myself, describe them as ‘wonderful’: I was going for one-to-one accuracy, a literal version as opposed to a literary one. Turning the pieces into English poetry (which, perhaps, is how they ought to be treated) would require a much less rigid approach, using my text only as a starting point—please feel free to do this or have it done, if you’ve a mind.

Regarding accuracy, an apology: I’ve solved the problem of the ‘per’ (see footnote 4) in the last stanza of the first poem, and in consequence I’m kicking myself for being a complete idiot (so much for expertise!), because given that there are other flaws/miscopyings in the text I should’ve thought of it in the first place.

‘Per curo’ is a misprint for the single word ‘percurro’, ‘I run through’, and taking it as such (or rather, as ‘read over’, which is an okay translation in this case) makes the Latin perfectly clear and correct: ‘Sitting all day by the blazing hearth, I read over some books, particularly…’ Could you amend the translation accordingly, and replace the current wording of the footnote with: ‘Reading “per curo” as “percurro”, “I run through”?

All the best
David WIshart


Ode on the Foot of Donald Macdonald, wounded at the Battle of Culloden by a leaden musket-ball

Alas! How many heroes fell in the too-bloody battle of Culloden, whose bodies lay despoiled at daybreak!

I saw the son of Col[1] (I shudder in the telling of it) fall at our side, from whom no-one who challenged him to equal fight had [ever] snatched the palm. Instead of a grave, these men were left to the ravening beasts of the field, while as many as still lived were torn apart by savage wounds.

A terrible ball from a hollow musket spitting lightning and fire, whistling[2] through the air, pierced my foot with huge force. It tore not only the flesh, the delicate fibres and the tendons but the very bones, and shearing through the leather bindings it despoiled me all at once of my shoe.

Now I will go about lame in one foot, like the black archetype-smith,[3] treading [lit. ‘striking’] with difficulty the grass of the verdant plain. Not for me, now, as before, the joys of hunting, of dancing [lit. ‘jumping’], of swimming, nor do I care to touch the swelling breasts of young girls.

When I seek my bed at night, desirous of rest, sleep closes my eyes very rarely, and [only] briefly, because of the excessive pain in my wounded foot.

In the morning, when I leave my warm nest, there gather round me old women [reading ‘vetulae’] and old men, asking [reading ‘rogantes’] me much about the war of Charles and the Butcher [Cumberland].

Sitting the whole day through by the blazing hearth, I read through some books, particularly [those concerning] the wars set to verse by the blind poet [i.e. Homer][4].

Meanwhile, it is the conscientious doctor’s care to treat my wounded limb, and I pray the benign Creator of the World to favour what he has undertaken.

 

The Lamentation of Donald Macdonald, in Hiding after the Battle of Culloden

Ah, what solitude I bear as I wander the sheer peaks of the mountains, through the many [lit. ‘several’] glens, the caves in the rocks, and the bristling heather!

In the forests now my companions are the deer, my comforters, with their cries, the cuckoos; now the doves lessen my weariness with their soft murmur.

A great force of soldiers pursue[d] me, because I refuse[d] to betray Prince Charles. But I strove to pass safely through the weapons of my enemies.

Countless ants, midges and wasps swarm, with heat and cold in turn, as if they have made treaty[5] with the Duke of Cumberland.

Not so terrible to me is George, whom Great Britain obeys as her lord, as are the little midges, than whom the Butcher Duke himself is scarcely a more pitiless enemy!

They always find my hiding-places, they fly into my face, they pierce my skin with their wound-inflicting bites [lit. ‘beaks’] and sate their bellies with my blood.

Long we fought bravely, on both sides; many bodies of midges were laid low on the earth, and my face was covered with many wounds.

Finally, overcome by the number of my enemies, I fled, seeking the steep places of the mountains, and immediately the hateful swarm followed me, wherever I went.

I was not [lit. ‘scarcely’] rid of this pestiferous crowd until, in my misery, a wind sprang up, and breathing on the midges dispersed them and sent them with its breath to hell [lit. ‘across the waters of the Styx’].

A more longed-for day will scarcely come for me until George is dead, and a new king succeeds to the throne who wishes to be kinder to his people.

Day and night I pray in my heart that either this shining day will come or that a war bloodier than before will vex the kingdoms of Britain.

Oh, if that time reaches my ears, I will dare to leave my hiding-places, and setting George’s menacing weapons at nought to give myself [back] openly to the world.



[1] McColl; the Latin footnote translates as ‘Keppoch, whose father’s name was Col’.

[2] Latin footnote on ‘sibilans’, ‘whistling’/’whispering: Better – as the author himself said – ‘flying’.

[3] Latin footnote: Vulcan.

[4] I’m not absolutely sure about this verse: that ‘per’ must go, somehow, with ‘tota luce’, ie ‘throughout the whole day’, but it’s misplaced, unnecessary, and shouldn’t take an ablative. Possibly it reproduces the English word order, ‘the whole day through’ – which is how I’ve translated it – as opposed to ‘throughout the day’; in Latin, ‘per totam diem’. Also, there’s no infinitive with ‘curo’ (‘I care for’): a literal translation here would be ‘I care for various books.’

[5] ‘Sanscissunt’ doesn’t exist. I’m reading it as ‘sanci[sc]unt’, from ‘foedus sancire’, to conclude a treaty.